APA ITU TRANSFORMATOR  CARA KERJA DAN CARA HITUNG TRAFO
Table of Contents
Introduction
This tutorial provides a comprehensive overview of transformers, explaining their function and calculation methods. Understanding transformers is essential in electrical engineering and applications involving power distribution. By following this guide, you will learn how transformers work and how to perform basic calculations related to their operation.
Step 1: Understanding the Basics of Transformers
 Definition: A transformer is an electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction.
 Components:
 Primary Coil: The input coil that receives alternating current (AC).
 Secondary Coil: The output coil that delivers the transformed voltage.
 Core: Typically made of iron, it enhances magnetic coupling between the coils.
Key Concepts
 Voltage Transformation: Transformers can increase (stepup) or decrease (stepdown) voltage levels.
 Turns Ratio: The ratio of the number of turns in the primary coil to the number of turns in the secondary coil determines the voltage change.
Step 2: How Transformers Work
 Electromagnetic Induction:
 When AC flows through the primary coil, it generates a magnetic field.
 This magnetic field induces a voltage in the secondary coil.
Important Points
 Conservation of Power: Ideally, the power in the primary coil equals the power in the secondary coil (P1 = P2), where P = V x I (Voltage x Current).
 Efficiency: Real transformers are not 100% efficient due to losses (e.g., heat).
Step 3: Basic Transformer Calculations
Calculation of Turns Ratio

The turns ratio (n) can be calculated using the formula:
n = V_primary / V_secondary
Example Calculation

If the primary voltage (V_primary) is 240V and the secondary voltage (V_secondary) is 120V:
n = 240V / 120V = 2
This means the primary coil has twice as many turns as the secondary coil.
Power Calculation

To find the current in the secondary coil (I_secondary), use:
P_primary = P_secondary V_primary * I_primary = V_secondary * I_secondary
Example

If V_primary = 240V, I_primary = 2A, and V_secondary = 120V:
P_primary = 240V * 2A = 480W 480W = 120V * I_secondary I_secondary = 480W / 120V = 4A
Step 4: Practical Applications of Transformers
 Power Distribution: Transformers are vital in electrical grids to stepup voltage for longdistance transmission and stepdown voltage for safe distribution.
 Electrical Devices: Used in various appliances, from chargers to audio equipment, to ensure the correct voltage is supplied.
Conclusion
Transformers play a crucial role in electrical systems, facilitating the safe and efficient transfer of electrical energy. By understanding how they work and how to calculate their parameters, you can apply this knowledge to various electrical applications. For further exploration, consider researching advanced transformer types and their specific applications in renewable energy systems.