First Order LogicPredicate LogicArtificial IntelligenceLogical ReasoningUnit215A05606
Table of Contents
Introduction
This tutorial provides a comprehensive overview of First Order Logic (FOL), also known as Predicate Logic. It will help you understand the key concepts, syntax, and applications of FOL, especially in the context of artificial intelligence and logical reasoning. This knowledge is essential for anyone looking to enhance their skills in mathematics, philosophy, or AI.
Step 1: Understanding the Limitations of Propositional Logic
Propositional logic is a foundational concept in logic, but it has several limitations:
 Simplicity and Declarative Nature: Propositional logic is straightforward but lacks depth.
 Separation of Knowledge and Inference: Inferences made in propositional logic are domainindependent.
 Insufficient for Complex Sentences: It cannot effectively express complex relationships. For example, it struggles with statements like "Some students in KEC are intelligent."
 Limited Expressive Power: You cannot represent certain relationships without creating a separate sentence for each instance.
Step 2: Introduction to First Order Logic
First Order Logic (FOL) overcomes many limitations of propositional logic by providing a richer framework for representation:
 Objects: Represents entities such as people, numbers, and colors.
 Relations: Defines relationships among objects (e.g., brother of, bigger than).
 Functions: Represents operations or relationships (e.g., father of).
Step 3: Key Properties of First Order Logic
FOL has several critical properties that make it useful:
 Fact Representation: It can express facts about some or all objects and their relationships.
 RealWorld Applications: It is applicable in mathematics, philosophy, and artificial intelligence.
 Complex Representation: Allows for more realistic representation than simple true/false statements.
Step 4: Syntax of First Order Logic
Understanding the syntax is crucial for working with FOL:
 Constants: Specific objects (e.g., King John, 2).
 Predicates: Properties or relationships (e.g., Brother).
 Functions: Operations on objects (e.g., Sqrt).
 Variables: Symbols representing unspecified objects (e.g., x, y).
 Connectives: Logical operators (e.g., ¬, ∧, ∨, →, ↔).
 Equality: Indicates object equivalence (e.g., =).
 Quantifiers: Indicate the scope of a statement (e.g., ∀ for "for all," ∃ for "there exists").
Step 5: Atomic and Complex Sentences

Atomic Sentences: Basic statements that can be true or false, defined as:
predicate(term1,...,term)
 Example:
Brother(King John, Richard The Lionheart)

Complex Sentences: Formed by combining atomic sentences using connectives:
 Examples include:
 ¬S1 (not S1)
 S1 ∧ S2 (S1 and S2)
 S1 ∨ S2 (S1 or S2)
 S1 → S2 (if S1 then S2)
 S1 ↔ S2 (S1 if and only if S2)
 Examples include:
Step 6: Truth in First Order Logic
FOL sentences' truth value depends on the model and interpretation:
 Model: Contains domain elements (objects) and their relationships.
 Interpretation: Assigns meanings to the symbols used:
 Constant Symbols → Objects
 Predicate Symbols → Relations
 Function Symbols → Functional relations
 Truth of Atomic Sentences: An atomic sentence is true if the terms refer to objects in the relation defined by the predicate.
Conclusion
First Order Logic provides a robust framework for representing complex relationships and reasoning in various disciplines. By understanding its syntax, properties, and applications, you can effectively utilize FOL in logical reasoning and artificial intelligence. For further exploration, consider practicing with examples and applying FOL concepts to realworld scenarios.