# Depth First Search-DFS-Artificial Intelligence-Unit-1-Problem Solving-Uninformed Searching

## Table of Contents

## Introduction

This tutorial provides a comprehensive guide to understanding Depth First Search (DFS), an uninformed search strategy used in artificial intelligence for problem-solving. DFS explores nodes and their children in a systematic manner, making it a foundational algorithm in computer science. By the end of this tutorial, you will grasp how DFS works, its characteristics, and its practical applications.

## Step 1: Understanding Depth First Search

Depth First Search is a traversal algorithm that begins at the root node and explores as far as possible along each branch before backtracking.

- Start with the root node.
- Explore the leftmost child node completely before considering its siblings.
- Siblings are explored in a left-to-right order.

### Characteristics of DFS

**Expansion of Nodes**: DFS expands the deepest node in the current frontier of the search tree.**Traversal Order Example**: For a tree structured as follows:

The depth-first traversal would visit nodes in this order: 1 → 2 → 4 → 5 → 3 → 6 → 7.`1 / \ 2 3 / \ / \ 4 5 6 7`

## Step 2: Implementing DFS

To implement DFS, you generally use either recursion or a stack data structure.

### Recursive Implementation

```
def dfs(node):
if node is None:
return
print(node.value) # Process the node
for child in node.children:
dfs(child) # Visit the child nodes
```

### Stack Implementation

```
def dfs_iterative(root):
stack = [root]
while stack:
node = stack.pop()
print(node.value) # Process the node
stack.extend(reversed(node.children)) # Add children to the stack
```

## Step 3: Analyzing the Performance of DFS

Understanding the performance metrics of DFS is crucial for evaluating its effectiveness.

**Time Complexity**: O(b^m), where b is the branching factor and m is the maximum depth of the tree.**Space Complexity**: O(bm), which is the maximum size of the stack or recursion depth.**Completeness**: DFS is not guaranteed to find a solution if one exists (it can get stuck in infinite branches).**Optimality**: DFS is not optimal; it may not find the least-cost path to a solution.

## Step 4: Example of DFS in Action

Consider the following node expansion sequence:

- Start from the initial node
`S0`

. - Expand to nodes
`{A3, B1, C8}`

. - Continue expanding
`{D6, E10, G18, B1, C8}`

from`A3`

.

### Solution Path

A sample solution path could be represented as:

- Path found: S → A → G
- Cost of the solution: 18
- Total nodes expanded (including the goal node): 5

## Conclusion

Depth First Search is an essential algorithm in artificial intelligence and computer science. Its systematic approach to exploring nodes makes it suitable for various applications, such as puzzle solving and game AI.

### Next Steps

- Experiment with DFS implementation in different programming languages.
- Explore other search algorithms like Breadth First Search (BFS) to understand their differences and use cases.